Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST)
The Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test, also known as the LIST, is a running test that includes jogging, running and sprinting, designed to simulate the physiological demands of soccer matches (Nicholas et al. 2000).
The protocol involves moving between two lines 20 meters apart, at speeds set based on player's individual fitness levels and relevant to the sport that is being simulated. Audio signals dictate the speeds they run at. See also the Yo-Yo Intermittent Tests, a simpler test also designed to replicate the intermittent demands of soccer players. There is also a video about the Loughborough Test.
purpose: To assess the physiological responses of athletes to a simulated sprint based team sport.
equipment required: clear flat area for conducting the test at least 30m long, marker cones, tape measure, timing gates for measuring sprint times, heart rate monitor, audio recording of test (you may be able to make you own using the Team Beep Test software).
pre-test: Explain the test procedures to the subject. Perform screening of health risks and obtain informed consent. Prepare forms and record basic information such as age, height, body weight, gender and test conditions. Check and calibrate equipment if required. Perform a standard warm-up. See more details of pre-test procedures.
procedure: Preliminary testing is required to determine the participant's VO2max for calculation of relative running speeds (you could use the beep test). Marker cones are set up 20 m apart, with timing gates at 15 m from one end. The standard test as described by Nicholas et al. (2000) comprises two parts. Part A is of is of fixed duration and consists of 5 x 15 minute exercise periods separated by three minutes of recovery. Each exercise period consist of a set pattern of intermittent high-intensity running: 3 x 20m at walking pace, 1 x 20m at maximal running speed, 4 seconds recovery, 3 x 20m running at 55% of VO2max, then 3 x 20m at 95% of VO2max. Part B of the test is an open-ended period of intermittent shuttle running. The participants run continuously between the 20m markers, alternating at speeds of 55% and 95% of VO2max every 20m. This part is designed to last approximately 10 minutes, and continues until they are unable to maintain the required sped for two consecutive shuttles at the higher intensity.
variations: another description of the test was that the test involves 6 x 15 minute blocks of exercise, separated by three minute rest intervals, making a total of 90 minutes of activity. Each 15 minute block consists of approximately 11 cycles: 3 x 20m walking, 1 x 15m sprint, 3 x 20m running, and 3 x 20m jogging.
scoring: parameters which can be recorded include: 15 m sprint times, heart rate, VO2 using portable equipment, blood lactate, perceived exertion using scales.
target population: This test was developed specifically for soccer players, though it is suitable for similar sports teams which are intermittent in nature.
variations: you can adjust the running intensities to reflect the exercise intensities for different sports. Some research has used a modified or shortened version of the test.
advantages: this test has been found to closely replicate soccer match play, though in a controlled environment.
disadvantages: this test is time and resource intensive. The test audio is not commercially available, and actually needs to be modified for each individual.
- Nicholas, C.W., Nuttall, F.E. and Williams, C. (2000). The Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: A field test that simulates the activity pattern of soccer. J. Sports Sciences 18: 97-104.
- Footeval Test — a football (soccer) specific test with one minute intervals incorpoarting ball dribbling.
- Gacon Test- an intermittent test with 45 seconds of running and 15 seconds rest, with the running distance incrementally increasing.
- Futsal Intermittent Endurance Test — consists of 45m (3x15m) shuttles performed at progressive speeds until exhaustion.
- 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15 IFT) — with a 30/15 second work/rest ratio
- Interval Shuttle Run Test (ISRT) — with a 30/15 second work/rest ratio
- Yo-Yo Intermittent Tests, which were also designed for soccer players.
- Soccer FIT Interval Test — this test was developed initially to mimic the demands of soccer players, involves running 10 and 25 yards circuits in diminishing times, with 30 seconds rest between sets.
- See a video about the LIST Test.
- About Testing for Intermittent Sports
- About fitness testing for soccer.
- You may be able to use the Team BeepTest software to create the audio for this test.