Summer Biathlon is a combination of trail running or roller skiing with rifle shooting. It is the summer version of the traditional Winter Olympic sport of biathlon, which combines rifle shooting with cross-country skiing.
The sport of Summer biathlon was originally invented by a group of winter biathletes as a way to continue their training during the summer months. The two events are: shooting combined with either cross country running, trial running or roller skiing. At the international level the endurance component only comprises roller skiing (since 2006).
In summer biathlon, athletes compete in over multiple laps of a specified course, which can vary in distance and terrain. They must complete a set number of laps while stopping at a designated shooting range between laps.
At the shooting range, competitors fire at a series of small targets, typically located 50 meters away. The number of shots required and the shooting format can vary (e.g., standing or prone positions). Athletes must hit the targets accurately to avoid time penalties, which may include things such as extra running or additional shooting.
The winner of a summer biathlon race is determined by a combination of the total time taken to complete the running or roller skiing segments, and the accuracy of their shooting.
The sport requires not only physical endurance and speed but also precision marksmanship under pressure. Summer biathlon competitions are held at various levels, from local and regional events to national and international championships, and international competitions are governed by the International Biathlon Union (IBU). The Summer Biathlon World Championships are held annually.
- Biathlon — a combination of cross-country skiing and rifle shooting.
- Target Sprint — a combination of sprint running and air rifle shooting.
- Nordic shooting with cross-country running — the summer variant of Nordic Field Biathlon, a precursor to Olympic Biathlon.
- Roller Skiing — races are conducted on tarmac road courses with athletes wearing snow skis with wheels attached.
- Cross-Country Skiing — races over snow-covered terrain while wearing skis.
- Biathlon Orienteering — a combination of the navigation sport of orienteering with rifle shooting.
- Laser Run — four legs of laser pistol shooting, each followed by an 800m run. It is also the final leg of the modern pentathlon.
- Triathle — a shortened version of the Modern Pentathlon, athletes compete in shooting, swimming and running events as a part of a single race.
- Winter Triathlon — athletes compete in running, mountain biking and cross-country skiing.
- Modern Pentathlon — comprises five events: fencing, 200m swim, show jumping, and combined pistol shooting and 3200m run.
- Ski Archery — a combined sport involving skiing and shooting arrows at targets.
- Trail/Fell Running — running and racing done off-road or on any over upland country, with a significant hill component.
- Cross country running — individuals or teams run races which involve courses over natural terrain.
- About Shooting Sports
- Biathlon at the Winter Olympics
- Military Patrol at the Olympics
- About Multi-Sports
- The complete list of sports
- The Encyclopedia of Sports