Biological Passport

The principle of the biological passport is to monitor selected biological variables over time, which can indirectly reveal the effects of doping rather than detect the doping substance or method itself. The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is an electronic record of an athlete's biological values that is developed over time from multiple collections of blood and urine samples. The structure of the biological passport is continually being assessed and refined to keep with changes in technology and drug use.

In 2015, the Athlete Biological Passport comprised two modules, based on blood and urine measures.

  1. Hematological Module - introduced 2012, considers a panel of biomarkers of blood doping that are measured in an athlete's blood sample, to identify enhancement of oxygen transport, including the use of EPO and any form of blood transfusion or manipulation.
  2. Steroidal Module - introduced in 2014, considers a panel of biomarkers of steroid doping measured in an athlete's urine sample, to identify steroidal variables such as testosterone.


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