Russian athletes first competed at the Olympic Games in 1900, then in 1908 and 1912, competing as part of the Russian Empire. It was not until 1952 that they again appeared at the Olympic Games, as part of the team from the Soviet Union. After the break up of the USSR in 1991, Russian athletes competed as part of the Unified Team at the 1992 Games, then as Russia again in 1996 and ever since.
Competing as the Soviet Union, the nation finished first overall in the medal tally in 1956, 1960, 1972, 1976 and 1980 and second in 1952, 1964 and 1968.
Even when Russia was competing on its own, it is still a potent force in the Olympics as it placed in top four in the 1996 up to 2016 editions of the Games. It also finished second in 1996 to 2000, third in 2004 to 2008 and fourth in 2012 to 2016.
Notable Russian athletes include Evgeniya Kanaeva, the first individual all around back-to-back Olympic gold medalists, and its women’s rhythmic gymnastics team, four-time winners of the group all around event.
Many Russian athletes were barred from attending the 2016 Rio Olympics following revelations state-sponsored doping. For the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games, Russia's flag and anthem were banned (also for the Winter Olympics in Beijing 2022). Under the sanctions only Russian athletes who meet certain criteria will only be able to compete. The Russian athletes who participate at the Tokyo 2020 will do so under the name "ROC" (the acronym of the Russian Olympic Committee).
- The Grand Duchy of Finland was part of the Russian Empire in 1908 and 1912, though their results are considered separately.
- Russia have hosted the Olympic Games once, in Moscow 1980. These were the first Games to be held in a communist country. This event was marred by a US-led boycott that led to a decreased number of participating countries.
- In 2000, Russian gymnast Alexei Nemov took home six medals, as he had done in Atlanta in 1996 four years earlier.
- The best all-time performing artistic swimmer at the Olympic Games is the Russian Svetlana Romashina who has won seven gold medals.
- The IAAF banned Russian athletes from the 2016 Rio games, following revelations of state-sponsored doping. The sanctions continued for the 2021 Tokyo Games.
- Russia at the Winter Olympics
- Russia at the Paralympics
- Information about the Soviet Union at the Olympics
- More trivia from each Country at the Olympic Games
- 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow
- About Sport in Russia