Bouldering is a type of rock climbing which is done without the use of a harness. The equipment used by the climbers are climbing shoes, chalk to keep their hands dry, and bouldering mats to avoid injuries.
Bouldering competitions can either be outdoor or indoor. In indoor competitions, the format has three rounds: the qualifications, semi-finals, and finals. Each round has different sets of boulder problems, and the climbers have a certain amount of time to attempt each problems. At the end, the climbers are ranked according to the problems they have completed.
In other competitions, the climbers are given a fixed number of attempts for each problem, the time rests between each attempt. In other formats, they are only given the allotted time to fix the problem. In open-format competitions, the climbers compete at the same time. They are given a certain amount of time to complete as many problems as they can.
- Sport Climbing — rock climbing competitions which can include Lead Climbing, Speed Climbing or Bouldering.
- Lead Climbing — climbers attempt to get highest on challenging route on a vertical wall within a pre-determined timeframe.
- Speed Climbing — athletes climb a set route on a vertical wall in the fastest time possible.
- Para-climbing — sports rock climbing for disabled athletes.
- Ice Climbing — athletes climb vertical ice formations with the uses of ropes and other protective gear.
- Mountaineering — the sport of mountain climbing.
- Abseiling — participants descend a steep formation using a rope. It is also known as rappeling, roping down, roping and snapling.