Field hockey is a popular competitive team sport played all around the world. It is played on a grass or turf field with teams of 11 players including the goalie,
The modern game of field hockey has a very long history. Variations of this 'stick and ball' team game date from at least 1272 B.C. A game called hockey was played in English schools in the early 19th century. By 1874 rules for the game were started to be drawn up, and an official association was formed in 1875.
Hockey first appeared as a men's competition at the 1908 Olympics in London, becoming a permanent fixture in 1928. The introduction of women's hockey to the Olympics did not happen until 1980.
Traditionally the game was played on grass, with a synthetic turf surface introduced prior to the 1976 Olympic Games, and adopted at all major international tournaments at the top level. This transition, and the more recent introduction of new rules allowing unlimited substitutions and no off-side, has dramatically changed the technical, tactical and physiological requirements of the modern game.