The new sport of Agball was created by Brett Scott of the USA in 2015.
The game consist of two teams. Each team is made up of four players: Team Captain, Wildcard, Offender, and Defender. It is played with one 5 inch ball. The aim of the game is to outscore the opponent. Points are scored by either 1) throwing a ball and striking an opponent, or 2) Catching a ball thrown by an opponent.
The game is played indoor or outdoor on a court that measures 60 feet long by 30 feet wide. At either end of the court is a 12 foot long team captain's box that goes from sideline to sideline. The court will have a half court line at the 30 foot mark. Three feet on both sides of the half court line are neutral zone lines.The ball must be a 5 inch inflatable ball.
Equipment Required: A volleyball-sized indoor or outdoor court. A 5 inch inflated rubber ball.
The Team Captain is designated by the color blue and the 'x' sign in the playbook. The Team Captain is the leader of the team. They initiate plays and communicate orders to other teammates. When a new possession is initiated, the Team Captain must have the ball and be in the Team Captain's box. From there, they can throw for score, hand off, or pass the ball to a teammate. They are isolated to only the Team Captain's box, but may move freely in it, passing, throwing, catching, or rebounding. They may never touch any object that is outside of the box unless it is the ball and can be done cleanly without touching any other object outside of the box.
The Wild Card is designated by the color green and the '*'sign in the playbook. They are the most versatile player in capabilities. They can be set or move freely anywhere on their team's respective side of the court whether on defense or offense.They can throw, catch for score, or rebound from inside or outside of the Team Captain's box. They can catch a ball for score and immediately throw it back for score without passing it back to the Team Captain to initiate a new play.
The Offender is designated by the color red and the '+'sign in the playbook. They can be positioned anywhere on the court whether on defense or offense. On defense, the Offender may rebound and catch for a score but must pass the ball back to the Team Captain afterwards.They can throw for score from either inside or outside of the Team Captain's box while on offense.
The Defender is designated by the color black and a '-'sign in the playbook. They may never touch inside the Team Captains box on defense. On offense, the Defender can be positioned inside or outside of the Team Captains box and throw from either spot. They may rebound from anywhere on the court except the Team Captain's box. Like the Wild Card, the Defender may also catch a ball for a score and throw it directly back without passing it to the Team Captain first.
The teams will start out by selecting a player for the 'rush'. The ball will be placed at the half court line and the opposing rushers will be lined up at the edge of their respective sides. Once a referee blows their whistle, the players will sprint for the ball. This is the only time a player is allowed to cross the half court line. Possession is awarded to the team of the player who gets the ball.
The team that has the ball is on offense and the opposing team is on defense. The Team Captain of the offense has the ball in the Team Captain's box and initiates play. The Team Captain can either throw for a score or pass the ball to a teammate. The ball can be passed around from teammate to teammate as long as nobody holds onto the ball longer than five seconds and the team throws the ball before the 15 second possession clock runs out.
The objective of the defense is obviously to avoid being hit by a thrown ball. They can move around as much as they want and wherever they want. The lone exceptions here are that the Defender always has to be outside the Team Captain's box on defense and the Team Captain always has to be inside the box.
Once the offense throws the ball, one of four outcomes can take place.
- First, the ball hits an opponent and the offense scores points depending on the following criteria 1) where the throw is coming from, 2) where the opponent is located and 3) how many opponents the ball hits. At that time, a new possession clock starts for the team that got hit. They are now on offense and the team that just threw is on defense.
- Secondly, the ball is thrown and neither hits an opponent nor is caught by an opponent, but is recovered by the opponent. The player recovering the ball would throw it back to the Team Captain to initiate a new offensive sequence for their team. The possession clock starts as soon as the ball hits the court.
- Third, the ball is thrown and caught by an opponent. The catch will count for one, two, or three points depending on the locations of the thrower and the catcher. If the ball is caught by the Wildcard or Defender, they may immediately throw the ball back for a score within a five second window or toss the ball back to the Team Captain to initiate a new play sequence. If the Offender catches the ball, they may only pass the ball back to the Team Captain to initiate a new play. As soon as the ball is caught, a possession clock starts for the team that caught the ball. Therefore, any time spent deciding to throw or pass by the Defender or Wild Card would be time coming off the possession clock for their team.
- Fourth, the ball is thrown and does not hit an opponent but rolls out of bounds. The ball automatically belongs to the team that was on defense when it was thrown. Both the possession clock and the game clock will stop while the ball is retrieved by a referee or player. Once the ball is retrieved, it has to go back to the Team Captain of the team that is now on Offense. Once the Team Captain has the ball, play resumes as well as the game and possession clocks.
A thrown ball must travel in the air past the half court line.
Players are not authorized to cross half court during play.
Players may not throw for score while any part of their body is in the neutral zone.
Players may not throw, catch for score, avoid throws, make a defensive or offensive position move, or utilize the out of bounds for any reason but to recover recoverable balls and may only pass an out of bounds recovered ball back to the team captain.
One exception to the above rule is that a player may catch a ball in motion and run through the out of bounds line as long as at least one foot is down in the field of play when the catch is made. The player would then have to pass the ball back to the team captain.
- Possession is determined by the team with the ball being on offense and the opposite team being on defense.
- A possession begins with the Team Captain having the ball and either throwing for score or passing to a teammate. The lone exception is when a Wildcard or Defender catches a ball on defense in which case they have five seconds to either immediately throw back for score or pass back to the Team Captain to begin a new play.
- Possession immediately switches once any defensive player catches a ball or touches an inbounds rebounded ball.
- After a scored hit or ball that is recovered out of bounds, the possession will switch when the rebounding team's
Team Captain takes possession of the ball.
- A ball that goes out of bounds is awarded to the team on defense at the time.
The length of the game, use of timeouts, as well as the use of quarters or halves can be determined by the participants.
There is a 15 second possession clock for the offense. The clock begins as soon as one of the following occurs: 1) the ball makes contact with a team's side of the court, 2) a ball is caught for a score, or 3) a thrown ball hits a participant.
Offensive players are only allowed to hold possession of the ball for 5 seconds at a time.
The game clock and possession clock stop after a penalty or an out of bounds ball and do not start until the referee gives the Team Captain of the offense the ball.
- The offense scores points by throwing a ball and striking an opponent anywhere on their body or clothing/uniform.
- A team can also score points by catching a ball that is thrown by an opponent.
- Points can be scored as a one point, two point, or three point shot.
- A one point shot is a throw by a player outside of their Team Captain's box that strikes an opponent who is also outside their Team Captain's box.
- A two point shot is a throw by a player outside their Team Captain's box that strikes an opponent who is inside their Team Captains box or a throw by a player who is inside their Team Captains box at an opponent outside their Team Captain's box.
- A three point shot is thrown by a player who is inside their Team Captain's box at an opponent who is also inside their Team Captain's box.
If a ball hits an opponent and ricochets off another opponent, the thrower receives points for both.
- If a ball ricochets off an opponent and then is caught by one of their teammates, the defensive team receives points while the offensive team does not.
- Scoring for balls caught is calculated in the same one, two, or three point system as balls thrown.
Possession clock violation: When the possession clock runs out before a throw for score leaves the hand of a player, or a player holds onto the ball longer than 5 seconds. A possession clock violation will result in loss of possession and no points awarded.
Illegal move: When a Defender makes contact in the Team Captain's box on defense, a Team Captain makes contact outside the Team Captain's box, or a player uses the out of bounds to make a move. Any infraction on offense results in loss of any points post infraction and/or turnover of the ball. Any infraction on defense results in a new possession, a full possession clock for the opposing team, and loss of any catch for score points (opposing team may decline if throw resulted in points for them).
Illegal avoidance: When any player uses the out of bounds or half court to avoid a throw, a Team Captain goes out of the Team Captain's box to avoid a throw, or a Defender goes in the Team Captain's box to avoid a throw. An infraction will result in the opponent getting awarded the amount of points that would have been scored had the defensive player not illegally moved (opposing team can decline if throw resulted in more points than penalty would award).
Illegal throw: When any player except the Team Captain tries to throw for score on a ball that was rebounded (not caught), when an offender tries to throw for score a ball that they caught for score, when a thrown ball did not make it past the halfway line before hitting the ground, or a player throws from out of bounds or in the neutral zone. This will result in loss of points and turnover of ball.
Half court violation: Anytime a player steps over the half court line on offense or defense. All points scored will be lost and the opposing team will be granted possession with a full possession clock (opposing team can decline if play results in points for them). * If done to avoid a throw, it would be considered an illegal avoidance.
Illegal pass: This occurs when a Defender, Offender, or Wildcard catches or rebounds the ball and passes it to any teammate other than the Team Captain. This would result in loss of any scored points and possession of ball.
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