The Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS)
The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (Smith et al., 2006) is a questionnaire that assesses the competitive trait anxiety experienced by athletes before or during competition. Other similar tests include the Sport Competition Anxiety Test.
The athlete answers the 21 questions, with no time limit for completion. The scale uses a four-point Likert scale for the responses, ranging from one (not at all) to four (very much). The scale measures responses for three factors: somatic anxiety, worry and concentration disruption.
SAS (original version)
|Q.||Not At All||Somewhat||Moderately So||Very Much So|
|1||I feel nervous||1||2||3||4|
|2||During competition, I find myself thinking about unrelated things||1||2||3||4|
|3||I have self-doubts||1||2||3||4|
|4||My body feels tense||1||2||3||4|
|5||I am concerned that I may not do as well in competition as I could||1||2||3||4|
|6||My mind wanders during sport competition||1||2||3||4|
|7||While performing, I often do not pay attention to what’s going on||1||2||3||4|
|8||I feel tense in my stomach||1||2||3||4|
|9||Thoughts of doing poorly interfere with my concentration during||1||2||3||4|
|10||I’m concerned about choking under pressure||1||2||3||4|
|11||My heart races||1||2||3||4|
|12||I feel my stomach sinking||1||2||3||4|
|13||I’m concerned about performing poorly||1||2||3||4|
|14||I have lapses of concentration during competition because of nervousness||1||2||3||4|
|15||I sometimes find myself trembling before or during a competitive event||1||2||3||4|
|16||I’m worried about reaching my goal||1||2||3||4|
|17||My body feels tight||1||2||3||4|
|18||I’m concerned that others will be disappointed in my performance||1||2||3||4|
|19||My stomach gets upset before or during a competitive event||1||2||3||4|
|20||I’m concerned I won’t be able to concentrate||1||2||3||4|
|21||My heart pounds before competition||1||2||3||4|
To calculate your score, add up all the numbers that were circled, then combined them using the following categories to get a score for each of the scales. Add up all results for the Trait Anxiety Score.
- Worry Score: add up questions 3, 5, 9, 10, 13, 16, 18.
- Concentration Disruption Score: 2, 6, 7, 14, 20.
- Somatic Trait Anxiety Score: add up questions 1, 4, 8, 11, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21.
- Smith, R.E., Smoll, F.E., & Schutz, R.W. (1990). Measurement and correlates of sport-specific cognitive and somatic trait anxiety: The sport anxiety scale. Anxiety Research, 2(4), 263-280.
- Smith, R.E., Smoll, F.L., Cumming, S.P., & Grossbard, J.R. (2006). Measurement of multidimensional sport performance anxiety in children and adults: The Sport Anxiety Scale-2. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 28, 479-501.
- Sport Psychology Questionnaires
- SCAT: this questionnaire analyses an athlete's responses to a series of statements about how they feel in a competitive situation.
- Wonderlic Test, an intelligence test (like an IQ test)