Alternative Olympic Games
In response to boycotts or sanctions by the International Olympic Committee, there have been several alternative sporting events organized.
"Deutsche Kampfspiele" (German Sports Contests), 1922
Following the first world war, Germany and its allies were not invited to the 1920 Olympic Games. As an alternative, Germany organized a German Sports Contest "Deutsche Kampfspiele". The event was held in June 1922 in Berlin, the city having been prepared for the 1916 Olympics which were eventually canceled due to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. There was also a winter sports event that year, coming two years before the first Olympic Winter Games. Subsequent events were held in Köln 1926, Breslau 1930 and in Nuremberg 1934.
The People's Olympiad, 1936
Spain decided to boycott the Berlin Games, and with labour and socialist groups around the world, organized an alternative event, the People's Olympiad. However, the event was canceled as the Spanish Civil War broke out.
Liberty Bell Classic, 1980
The Liberty Bell Classic (often referred to as Olympic Boycott Games) was held at the University of Pennsylvania by 29 of the countries that boycotted the 1980 Olympic Games. The event started on July 16, shortly before the 1980 Olympics opened on July 19.
Friendship Games, 1984
The Friendship Games were organized by Eastern Bloc countries in response to their boycott of the 1984 Olympic Games. The Friendship Games was held between 2 July and 16 September 1984 in the Soviet Union, with eight other socialist states which had boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
Games of the New Emerging Forces
The Games of the New Emerging Forces (GANEFO) were set up by Indonesia in 1962 as a counter to the Olympic Games. These Games were established for the athletes of the so-called "emerging nations" (mainly newly independent socialist states). The first edition of GANEFO was held in Jakarta, Indonesia on November 10–22, 1963. The second GANEFO was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in November 25-December 6, 1966.
The Women's World Games was established to address the lack of women's athletic competitions in the during the early Olympic years. The event consisted of several competitions, similar to the Olympics, conducted only for women participants between 1922 and 1934. See more.
Russian president Vladimir Putin has ordered an alternative Olympics in Sochi for the Russian athletes banned from the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang following revelations of a state-sponsored doping program. This alternative event is planned to be hosted at the same Sochi site that hosted the 2014 Winter Olympics, and winners will receive the same monetary compensation that Russia usually gives to its Olympic medalists.
- History of the Olympics
- Ancient & Discontinued Multi-Sport Games
- Books about the History of the Olympic Games